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Table 4 Newcastle–Ottawa Scale assessment for case–control studies (Ottawa Hospital Research Institute 2019; Singh et al. 2015)

From: Safe use of radiopharmaceuticals in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review

Study Selection Comparability Exposure Total score
Adequate definition of case Representativeness of cases Selection of controls Definition of controls Comparability of cases and controls on the basis of the design or analysis Study controls for any additional factor Ascertainment of exposure Same method of ascertainment for cases and controls Non-response rate
Aktaş et al. (2008) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 1
El-Zeftawy et al. (2017) 0 * 0 0 * * 0 * 0 4
Kode et al. (2017) 0 * 0 0 * * 0 * 0 4
Tobes et al. (1989) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 1
Toriihara et al. (2015) 0 * 0 * * * 0 * 0 5
  1. '*' means one awarded point
  2. Good-quality: awarded 3–4 stars in the selection domain and 1–2 stars in the comparability domain and 2 stars in the exposure domain. Fair studies: awarded 2 stars for selection and 1–2 stars for comparability and 1–2 stars for exposure. Poor-quality: awarded 0–1 stars for selection or 0 for comparability or 0 for exposure (Singh et al. 2015)