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Table 1 Radiotracers used clinically at the University of Michigan

From: Use of 55 PET radiotracers under approval of a Radioactive Drug Research Committee (RDRC)

Radiotracer Abbreviation Application Radiosynthesis Dosimetry Historical Imaging
[11C]Radiotracers
 [11C]Acetate [11C]ACE Metabolism Runkle et al. 2011 Seltzer et al. 2004 Duvernoy et al. 2016
  [11C]Aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid [11C]ACHC Amino acid transport Koeppe et al. 1990a Washburn et al. 1982a Koeppe et al. 1990a
 1-[11C]Methyl-4- piperidinyl n-butyrate [11C]BMP Butyrlcholinesterase Snyder et al. 2001 Virta et al. 2008 Kuhl et al. 2006
  [11C]Butanol [11C]BUT Blood flow See Supporting Information See Supporting Information b; Quarles et al. 1993
 [11C]Carfentanil [11C]CFN Mu opioid receptors Blecha et al. 2017 Newberg et al. 2009 Zubieta et al. 2000
 [11C]Choline [11C]CHO Choline biochemistry Shao et al. 2014 Tolvanen et al. 2010 Piert et al. 2009
 [11C]DASB [11C]DASB Serotonin transporter Shao et al. 2014 Lu et al. 2004 Albin et al. 2008
 [11C]Dihydrotetrabenazine [11C]DTBZ Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) Shao et al. 2014 Murthy et al. 2008 Koeppe et al. 1995
 [11C]Epinephrine [11C]EPI Norepinephrine Transporter (NET) Chakraborty et al. 1993 Wrobel et al. 1997 Münch et al. 2000
 [11C]Flumazenil [11C]FMZ GABAA Receptors Shao et al. 2011a Laymon et al. 2012 Koeppe et al. 1991
 [11C]meta-Hydroxyephedrine [11C]HED NET, Sympathetic nervous system Shao et al. 2014 Wrobel et al. 1997 and Supporting Information Duvernoy et al. 2016
 [11C]LY2795050 [11C]LY2795050 Kappa opioid receptors Yang et al. 2018 See Supporting Information b; Naganawa et al. 2015
 [11C]Methionine [11C]MET Amino acid Shao et al. 2014 Deloar et al. 1998 Miller et al. 2019
 [11C]Methoxytetrabenazine [11C]MTBZ VMAT2 DaSilva et al. 1993a Wrobel et al. 1997 Vander Borght et al. 1995
 [11C]Methylphenidate [11C]MPH Dopamine transporter Moran et al. 2010 See Supporting Information Albin et al. 2009
 [11C]N-Methylpiperidinyl benzilate [11C]NMBP mAChR Mulholland et al. 1995 Mulholland et al. 1995 Zubieta et al. 2001
 [11C]OMAR/[11C]JHU 75528 [11C]OMAR Cannabinoid 2 receptors Shao et al. 2015 Wong et al. 2010 Wong et al. 2010
 [11C]Palmitate [11C]PALM Fatty acid metabolism Runkle et al. 2011 Christensen et al. 2017 b; de Jong et al. 2009
 [11C]PBR28 [11C]PBR28 Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Shao et al. 2014 Brown et al. 2007 b Kreisl et al. 2016
 [11C]Pittsburgh Compound B [11C]PiB Amyloid plaques Shao et al. 2014 O’Keefe et al. 2009 Burke et al. 2011
 [11C]((E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2β-(4′-tolyl) nortropane) [11C]PE2I Dopamine transporter Dollé et al. 2000; Halldin et al. 2003 Ribeiro et al. 2007 b; Halldin et al. 2003
 [11C]Phenylephrine [11C]PHEN NET Del Rosario et al. 1996 Wrobel et al. 1997 Raffel et al. 1996
 (R)-[N-Methyl-11 C]PK11195 [11C]PK11195 TSPO Alves et al., 2013 Hirvonen et al. 2010 Junck et al. 1989
 [11C]PMP [11C]PMP Acetylcholinesterase Shao et al. 2014 See Supporting Information Kuhl et al. 1999
 [11C]Raclopride [11C]RAC Dopamine D2 receptors Shao et al. 2014 Ribeiro et al. 2005 Scott et al. 2006
 [11C]Ro-54,864 [11C]Ro-54,864 TSPO Watkins et al. 1988 see Supporting Informationa Junck et al. 1989
 [11C]Sarcosine [11C]SARC Sarcosine biochemistry Piert et al. 2017 Piert et al. 2017 Piert et al. 2017
 [11C]Scopolamine [11C]SCOP mAChR Mulholland et al. 1988 Frey et al. 1992 Frey et al. 1992
 [11C]Tetrabenazine [11C]TBZ VMAT2 DaSilva et al. 1993b DaSilva et al. 1994 Kilbourn et al. 1993
 [11C]Tropanylbenzilate [11C]TRB mAChR Mulholland et al. 1992 Mulholland et al. 1992 Koeppe et al. 1994
 [11C]WAY-100365 [11C]WAY 5-HT1A Receptor Krasikova et al. 2009 Parsey et al. 2005 Mickey et al. 2008
[18F]Radiotracers
 [18F]Flortaucipir [18F]AV1451; [18F]T807; Tauvid Tau c; Mossine et al. 2017 Choi et al. 2016 Drake et al. 2019; Kramer et al. 2020
 3-(1,4-Diazabicyclo[3.2.2] nonan-4-yl)-6-[18F]fluoro-dibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide [18F]JHU82132, [18F]ASEM α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) Gao et al. 2013 and Supporting Information Wong et al. 2014 and Supporting Information b; Wong et al. 2014
 Fluciclovine (anti-1-Amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid) [18F]FACBC; Auxumin Amino acid transport c; Sörensen et al. 2013 Nye et al. 2007; McParland et al. 2010 b; Songmen et al. 2019
 [18F]Fluoroazomycin arabinoside [18F]FAZA Tumor hypoxia Shao et al. 2011b Savi et al. 2017 Beck et al., 2007
 2-[18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [18F]FDG Glucose metabolism Richards and Scott 2012; Sowa et al. 2018 Srinivasan et al. 2020 Koeppe et al. 2005
 [18F]6-Fluoro-L-DOPA [18F]FDOPA Dopamine See Supporting Information, Mossine et al. 2019, 2020 Kaushik et al. 2013; Mejia et al. 1991 Minn et al. 2009
 [18F]-Fluoroethoxy- benzovesamicol [18F]FEOBV Vesicular acetylcholine transporter Shao et al. 2011b Petrou et al. 2014 Petrou et al. 2014
 [18F]Fluorocholine [18F]FCH Choline biochemistry Rodnick et al. 2013 DeGrado et al. 2002; Fabbri et al. 2014 Davenport et al. 2020
 [18F]Florbetapir Amyvid; [18F]AV45 Amyloid plaques c Joshi et al. 2014 Frey and Koeppe 2016
 [18F]-Fluoro-3′-deoxy-3′-L-fluorothymidine [18F]FLT Cellular proliferation Shao et al. 2011b Vesselle et al. 2003; Mendes et al. 2018 Bertagna et al. 2013
 [18F]Flubatine [18F]FLBT α4β2 nAChR Hockley et al. 2013 Kranz et al. 2016 Sattler et al. 2012
 [18F]Flutemetamol Vizamyl, [18F]GE67 Amyloid plaques c; Snellman et al. 2014 Koole et al. 2009 Frey and Koeppe 2016
 [18F]Fluoromisonidazole [18F]FMISO Tumor hypoxia d; Riss et al. 2012 Graham et al. 1997 Bruehlmeier et al. 2004
 [18F]Fluoropropyl-dihydrotetrabenazine [18F]FP-TBZ, [18F]AV133 VMAT2 Lin et al. 2010 Lin et al. 2010 Kilbourn and Koeppe 2019
 [18F]GBR13119 /[18F]GBR12909 [18F]GBR DAT Haka and Kilbourn 1988, 1990 Kilbourn et al. 1989 Koeppe et al. 1990b
 4-[18F]Fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine [18F]MHPG NET Raffel et al. 2018 Raffel et al. 2018 Raffel et al. 2018
 2′-Methoxyphenyl-(N-2′-pyridinyl)-p-18F-fluoro-benzamidoethylpiperazine [18F]MPPF 5-HT1A Receptor Shao et al. 2011b See Supporting Information b; Aznavour and Zimmer 2007
 [18F]Sodium Fluoride [18F]NaF Bone imaging Shao et al. 2011b Segall et al. 2010; Silveira et al. 2010 Wong and Piert 2013
 [18F]N-Methyl Lansoprazole [18F]NML Tau Kramer et al. 2020 Kramer et al. 2020 Kramer et al. 2020
 4-[18F]Fluoro-p-hydroxyphenethylguanidine [18F]PHPG NET Raffel et al. 2018 Raffel et al. 2018 Raffel et al. 2018
Other Radiotracers
 [13N]Ammonia [13N]NH3 Blood flow Scott 2012 Yi et al. 2015 Beanlands et al. 1994
 [15O]Water [15O]H2O Blood flow Dick and Watkins 2015 Brihaye et al. 1995 Minoshima et al. 1993
 [68Ga]DOTATATE NETSPOT Somatostatin receptors NETSPOT prescribing information 2016 Walker et al. 2013 b; Fallahi et al. 2019
 [68Ga]PSMA-HBEDCC [68Ga]PSMA-11 Prostate specific membrane antigen See Supporting Information; Rodnick et al. 2020 Afshar-Oromieh et al. 2016; Sandgren et al. 2019 Rodnick et al. 2020
  1. aHistorical dosimetry data is no longer extant. Biodistribution data are provided to enable estimation of dosimetry; b UM Imaging data not yet published; c Commercially available under an approved (A)NDA; d Commercially available under an IND