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Table 1 Summary of potential PET tracers for TAMs, evaluated in preclinical or clinical studies

From: Potential PET tracers for imaging of tumor-associated macrophages

Target Macrophage phenotype Radiotracer Species Disease (model) References
CD206 M2 [18F]FDM Rabbit Atherosclerosis model Tahara et al. (2014)
[18F]FB-anti-MMR-sdAb Mouse Lung cancer xenograft model Blykers et al. (2015)
[68Ga]NOTA-MSA Mouse Atherosclerosis model Kim et al. (2016)
[68Ga]NOTA-anti-MMR-Nb Mouse Atherosclerosis model Varasteh et al. (2019)
[68Ga]Ga-NOTA-anti-MMR-sdAb Mouse Lung cancer xenograft model Xavier et al. (2019)
CD163 M2 [68Ga]ED2 Rat Arthritis model Eichendorff et al. (2015)
Arginase M2 [18F]FMARS Mouse Prostate cancer xenograft model Clemente et al. (2021)
[18F]FBMARS Mouse Prostate cancer xenograft model Clemente et al. (2021)
CSF-1R M1 and M2 [11C]AZ683 Rat, non-human primate Healthy Tanzey et al. (2018)
[11C]CPPC Mouse, non-human primate Neuroinflammation model (LPS) Horti et al. (2019), Zhou et al. (2021)
[11C]GW2580 Mouse, non-human primate Neuroinflammation mouse model (LPS) and health non-human primates Zhou et al. (2021)
CD68 M1 and M2 [64Cu]CD68-Fc Mouse Atherosclerosis model Bigalke et al. (2014)
CCR2 M1 and M2 [64Cu]-DOTA-ECLi Rat Abdominal aortic aneurysm model English et al. (2020)
[64Cu]Cu@CuOx-ECLi Mouse Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model Zhang et al. (2021)
[18F]6b Mouse Healthy Wagner et al. (2021)
Folate receptor M1 and M2 [68Ga]NOTA-folate Mouse KB xenograft model Brand et al. (2017)
[18F]AlF-NOTA-folate-PEG12 Mouse KB xenograft model Chen et al. (2017)
[18F]fluoro-PEG-folate Mouse Rheumatoid arthritis model Chandrupatla et al. (2018)
Human Rheumatoid arthritis Verweij et al. (2020)
[18F]AlF-NOTA-folate Mouse Atherosclerosis model Silvola et al. (2018)
[18F]AzaFol Mouse Lung fibrosis model Schniering et al. (2019)
   Human Ovarian and lung cancer (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03242993)
  1. sdAb: single-domain antibody; Nb: nanobody; CSF-1R: Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor; CD: cluster of differentiation; CCR2: C–C chemokine receptor type 2; KB: human epithelial cancer cell; Fc: fragment crystallizable region; LPS: lipopolysaccharides; 6b: 2-[4-(5-Fluoropentoxy)phenyl]-N-{4-[N-methyl-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)aminomethyl]phenyl}-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[7]annulene-8-carboxamide