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Table 5 Selected potential nano/micro-materials labeled with 223Ra

From: Radiolabeled nanomaterials for biomedical applications: radiopharmacy in the era of nanotechnology

223Ra labeled NPs Particle size Labeling method Stage of research References
Hydroxyapatite 21.7 ± 6.9 nm (TEM) Surface sorption, Intrinsic labeling In vitro, radiochemical analysis Kukleva et al. 2019; Suchánková et al. 2020b)
CaCO3 3–30 μm (light scattering) Surface sorption In vivo, rodents Li et al. 2020)
Fe3O4 4–26 nm (TEM)
284 nm (DLS)
Surface sorption In vitro, radiochemical analysis Mokhodoeva et al. 2016)
Barium ferrite 14–30 nm (TEM) Intrinsic labeling In vitro, cell lines Gawęda et al. 2020)
LaPO4 3–10 nm (TEM) Surface sorption, Intrinsic labeling In vitro, radiochemical analysis Toro-González et al. 2020)
TiO2 5.3 ± 1.7 nm (TEM) Surface sorption, Intrinsic labeling In vitro, radiochemical analysis Kukleva et al. 2019; Suchánková et al. 2020b)
BaSO4 140 ± 50 nm (TEM/DLS) Intrinsic labeling In vitro, radiochemical analysis Reissig et al. 2019)
GdVO4 length: 23–48 nm, width: 16–32 nm (TEM, pH dependent) Intrinsic labeling In vitro, radiochemical analysis Toro-González et al. 2020)
Nanozeolite 30–800 nm (SEM)
226.1 ± 44.2 nm (DLS)
Intrinsic labeling In vivo, rodents Czerwińska et al. 2020; Lankoff et al. 2021)
Nanodiamonds Graphene oxide
Nanotubes
3–10 nm
 > 100 nm (HR-TEM)
30 nm
Surface sorption In vitro radiochemical analysis Kazakov et al. 2020))
Nanomicelles 129.4 nm ± 0.3 (DLS) Encapsulation In vitro, cell lines Yang et al. 2022)